Licensed & Insured. Crawl space Encapsulation and Mold Remediation

How Does the Conditioned Crawlspace System Revolutionize Crawl Space Maintenance?

Blog about Conditioned Crawl space Encapsulation

In the realm of home improvement and maintenance, the conditioned crawlspace system has emerged as a game-changer. 

This innovative approach not only transforms the way we think about traditional crawl spaces but also redefines the standards for ‘conditioned crawlspaces’ themselves. 

In this article, we will explore how the conditioned crawlspace system revolutionizes crawl space maintenance and why it’s a paradigm shift in creating healthier, more energy-efficient homes.

Concerned about your crawlspace? Let Nashville’s best assess it! Call now at 615-237-1820.

Table Of Contents:

Traditional Crawl Space Issues

Common Problems in Unconditioned Crawl Spaces

Unconditioned crawl spaces often suffer from various issues due to their exposure to the external environment. Common problems in unconditioned crawl spaces include:

  • Excess Moisture: Unconditioned crawl spaces are susceptible to moisture buildup from groundwater or external sources.
  • Mold and Mildew: High humidity levels make unconditioned crawl spaces ideal breeding grounds for mold and mildew.
  • Pest Infestations: Open vents and entry points in traditional crawl spaces can attract pests and rodents.
  • Energy Inefficiency: Traditional crawl spaces lack insulation, leading to temperature fluctuations and energy inefficiency.
  • Poor Air Quality: Ventilation issues can result in poor indoor air quality, leading to respiratory problems.
  • Structural Damage: Moisture and pests can cause structural damage to wooden beams and supports.
  • Health Concerns: Mold, pests, and poor air quality can lead to health issues for inhabitants.

Understanding these common issues is crucial for homeowners seeking to improve the condition of their crawl spaces. Addressing these problems is a key consideration for transitioning to a conditioned crawl space system.

Impact on Home Health and Efficiency

The condition of traditional crawl spaces can have a significant impact on home health and efficiency. These issues can lead to various problems, affecting both the well-being of occupants and the overall efficiency of the home:

  • Poor Indoor Air Quality: Traditional crawl spaces often harbor mold, mildew, and contaminants, which can infiltrate the living space, leading to respiratory problems and allergies.
  • Increased Energy Costs: Due to inadequate insulation and uncontrolled temperatures, traditional crawl spaces can cause the HVAC system to work harder, resulting in higher energy bills.
  • Moisture-Related Damage: Excess moisture can cause structural damage, including rotting wood and deteriorating building materials, leading to costly repairs.
  • Health Concerns: The presence of mold, pests, and contaminants in traditional crawl spaces can pose health risks, especially for those with allergies and respiratory conditions.
  • Reduced Home Value: Homes with problematic crawl spaces can have reduced property values due to the potential need for repairs and the impact on overall home health and energy efficiency.

Understanding how traditional crawl space issues affect home health and efficiency is vital for homeowners looking to improve their living conditions and property values. Transitioning to a conditioned crawl space can alleviate these issues and provide numerous benefits.

Costly Repairs and Health Concerns

Traditional crawl spaces can be sources of both costly repairs and health concerns. These issues often lead to significant financial burdens and health-related worries for homeowners:

  • Structural Damage: Excess moisture and pests can cause structural damage to the crawl space, requiring costly repairs to wooden beams, support pillars, and subflooring.
  • Mold Remediation: If mold growth is left unaddressed, it can spread throughout the crawl space and into the home, necessitating costly mold remediation services.
  • Pest Control: Pest infestations in traditional crawl spaces may require professional pest control services, which can be an ongoing expense.
  • Healthcare Costs: Health issues resulting from poor indoor air quality, such as allergies or respiratory problems, can lead to medical expenses and reduced quality of life.
  • Decreased Property Value: The presence of crawl space issues can reduce the overall value of the property, making it less attractive to potential buyers and impacting resale value.
  • Maintenance Expenses: Regular maintenance to address moisture-related problems and repairs can accumulate over time, contributing to the overall cost of ownership.

Understanding the financial and health implications of traditional crawl space issues emphasizes the importance of considering a transition to a conditioned crawl space system. This transition not only improves the living environment but can also lead to long-term savings.

Key Takeaway: 


Common problems in unconditioned crawl spaces, including excess moisture, mold, pests, and poor air quality, impact home health and efficiency, potentially resulting in costly repairs, health concerns, and decreased property value. Transitioning to a conditioned crawl space system can alleviate these issues and provide numerous benefits.

Conditioned Crawlspace System Explained

What is a Conditioned Crawlspace?

A conditioned crawlspace is a climate-controlled and sealed space beneath a building designed to maintain consistent temperature and humidity levels. 

It typically involves the installation of insulation, vapor barriers, and HVAC systems to control the environment. 

Unlike traditional crawl spaces that remain exposed to outdoor conditions, conditioned crawl spaces are sealed off from the external environment to create a more controlled and stable space beneath a building.

Key Components of the System

A conditioned crawlspace system comprises several essential components that work together to create a controlled environment. These key components ensure the effectiveness of the system, providing numerous benefits for homeowners:

  • Vapor Barrier: The vapor barrier is a moisture-resistant layer that prevents ground moisture from entering the crawl space. It forms a crucial part of moisture control.
  • Insulation: Proper insulation in conditioned crawl spaces helps maintain consistent temperatures and reduces energy loss. It is essential for energy efficiency.
  • HVAC System: An HVAC system, such as a dehumidifier or air exchange unit, is a vital part of the system, providing climate control and humidity management.
  • Sealed Foundation Vents: Sealing off foundation vents prevents outside air from entering the crawl space, maintaining a controlled environment.
  • Dehumidification System: Dehumidifiers play a significant role in controlling humidity levels, preventing mold, and maintaining the overall health of the crawl space.

These key components work in harmony to create a conditioned crawl space that effectively manages moisture, temperature, and indoor air quality, contributing to a healthier and more energy-efficient living space.

How It Differs from Traditional Crawl Spaces

Understanding how a conditioned crawlspace system differs from traditional crawl spaces is crucial for homeowners considering this upgrade. Here are the key distinctions:

  • Moisture Control: Conditioned crawl spaces actively manage moisture, utilizing vapor barriers and dehumidification systems, while traditional crawl spaces are prone to excess humidity and moisture issues.
  • Insulation: Conditioned crawl spaces include insulation to maintain consistent temperatures, while traditional crawl spaces often lack proper insulation.
  • Sealing: Conditioned crawl spaces are sealed off from the exterior, eliminating vents and other openings to the outside, whereas traditional crawl spaces often have open vents.
  • HVAC Integration: Conditioned crawl spaces use HVAC systems like dehumidifiers or air exchange units to control temperature and humidity, while traditional crawl spaces rely on ambient outdoor conditions.
  • Pest and Mold Prevention: The controlled environment in conditioned crawl spaces deters pest infestations and mold growth, whereas traditional crawl spaces are more susceptible to these issues.
  • Energy Efficiency: The insulation and controlled climate in conditioned crawl spaces contribute to energy efficiency, reducing heating and cooling costs, which is not the case in traditional crawl spaces.

Understanding these differences can help homeowners make informed decisions about transitioning to a conditioned crawlspace system. This upgrade offers numerous benefits, addressing common issues associated with traditional crawl spaces and leading to a healthier, more efficient home environment.

Key Takeaway: 


A conditioned crawlspace is a sealed, climate-controlled space that differs from traditional crawl spaces. It utilizes key components to create a moisture-controlled environment, resulting in a healthier, more energy-efficient living space. Transitioning to a conditioned crawlspace offers homeowners significant benefits.

Benefits of a Conditioned Crawlspace System

Improved Moisture Control

One of the primary advantages of a conditioned crawlspace system is its superior moisture control capabilities. 

By regulating humidity levels within the crawl space, this system effectively prevents moisture buildup, reducing the risk of structural damage, wood rot, and the proliferation of mold and mildew. 

Improved moisture control also helps to maintain a stable foundation and safeguards your home against potential water-related issues.

Enhanced Indoor Air Quality

Implementing a conditioned crawlspace system contributes significantly to the indoor air quality of your home. 

By preventing dampness and mold growth, this system ensures that the air circulating within your living spaces remains free of harmful mold spores and allergens. 

This can lead to a healthier living environment, especially for individuals with allergies or respiratory issues.

Energy Efficiency

The conditioned crawlspace system can revolutionize your home’s energy efficiency. 

By properly sealing and insulating the crawl space, it reduces the loss of conditioned air, leading to lower heating and cooling costs. 

This energy-saving feature not only benefits your wallet but also helps reduce your carbon footprint, making your home more eco-friendly.

Extended Lifespan of Crawl Space Materials

The use of a conditioned crawlspace system significantly extends the lifespan of materials in your crawl space. 

With better moisture control, wooden beams and structural components are less prone to decay and deterioration. 

This prolongs the overall longevity of your crawl space, reducing the need for costly repairs or replacements.

Pest and Mold Prevention

One of the notable benefits of a conditioned crawlspace system is its effectiveness in preventing pests and mold infestations. 

The controlled environment discourages pests from making your crawl space their habitat, while the reduced moisture levels deter the growth of mold and mildew. 

This not only ensures a cleaner and safer crawl space but also protects your home from potential health hazards.

Reduced Maintenance Costs and Time

The conditioned crawlspace system can save homeowners both time and money in maintenance. 

By addressing moisture issues, preventing structural damage, and keeping pests and mold at bay, you’ll have fewer ongoing maintenance tasks to worry about. 

This translates to lower maintenance costs and more free time to enjoy your home without constant crawl space-related concerns.

Key Takeaway: 


A conditioned crawlspace system offers improved moisture control, enhanced indoor air quality, energy efficiency, extended material lifespan, pest and mold prevention, and reduced maintenance costs, ensuring a more comfortable and cost-effective living environment.

Implementing a Conditioned Crawlspace System

Steps to Transition from a Traditional System

Transitioning from a traditional crawl space system to a conditioned crawl space system can be a beneficial upgrade for your home. Here are the steps to guide you through this process:

  1. Assessment of Existing Conditions: Begin by assessing the current state of your crawl space. Identify any existing issues, such as moisture problems, pests, or insulation deficiencies. This evaluation will help you understand the extent of the necessary improvements.
  2. Consult a Professional: It’s essential to consult with a qualified professional who specializes in crawl space encapsulation and conditioning. They will provide expert advice, recommend suitable solutions, and assess your specific needs.
  3. Design a Customized Plan: Work with a professional to design a tailored plan for your crawl space. This plan should address the specific issues in your crawl space and outline the steps required to transition to a conditioned system.
  4. Crawl Space Encapsulation: One of the key steps involves encapsulating the crawl space. This includes sealing off the space from the external environment, installing a vapor barrier, and ensuring airtight insulation to maintain a controlled environment.
  5. Moisture Control and Dehumidification: Implement a reliable moisture control and dehumidification system. This will help maintain the desired humidity levels and prevent moisture-related problems.
  6. Pest Prevention Measures: Incorporate pest prevention measures to deter unwanted critters from entering your crawl space. This may include sealing entry points, installing barriers, or using non-toxic repellents.
  7. Insulation and Ventilation: Ensure proper insulation and ventilation in accordance with the new conditioned crawl space design. This will contribute to energy efficiency and overall home comfort.
  8. Regular Maintenance: Establish a routine maintenance schedule to ensure the continued effectiveness of your conditioned crawl space system. This includes periodic inspections and servicing of equipment.
  9. Monitoring and Adjustment: Monitor the crawl space conditions regularly and make necessary adjustments to the system as needed. This proactive approach helps in maintaining a healthy and efficient environment.
  10. Enjoy the Benefits: Once the transition is complete, you can enjoy the numerous benefits of your conditioned crawl space system, including improved air quality, energy savings, and reduced maintenance.

Transitioning to a conditioned crawl space system requires careful planning and execution, but the long-term benefits for your home and well-being make it a worthwhile investment. Working with professionals and following these steps can lead to a successful transition from a traditional system to a conditioned one.

Considerations for New Constructions

When building a new home, you have the advantage of designing and implementing a conditioned crawl space system from the ground up. This proactive approach can significantly enhance the long-term health and efficiency of your home. Here are the key considerations for new constructions:

  • Crawl Space Location: Decide on the optimal location for the crawl space in your new construction. Consider factors like accessibility, terrain, and proximity to plumbing and utility lines.
  • Moisture Barrier Installation: Incorporate a robust moisture barrier into the construction plan. This barrier should cover the entire crawl space area to prevent moisture intrusion from the start.
  • Proper Ventilation Design: Plan an effective ventilation system for the crawl space to ensure adequate airflow. Proper ventilation helps in controlling moisture and maintaining a healthy environment.
  • Insulation Quality: Choose high-quality insulation materials and ensure they are installed correctly. Proper insulation helps in regulating temperature and energy efficiency.
  • Sump Pump Installation: Consider installing a sump pump as a precautionary measure. It can help remove excess water in case of flooding or water seepage, protecting your crawl space from water damage.
  • Humidity Control: Integrate a humidity control system into your new construction plan. This can include a dehumidifier or a humidistat-controlled ventilation system to maintain ideal humidity levels.
  • Pest Prevention Measures: Implement pest prevention strategies during construction. This may involve sealing entry points, using pest-resistant building materials, and considering non-toxic pest control methods.
  • Sealed Crawl Space Design: Plan for a sealed crawl space, which involves sealing off the space from the outside environment. This will help maintain consistent temperature and humidity levels.
  • Accessibility and Maintenance Space: Ensure that the crawl space is designed with adequate accessibility for future maintenance and inspections. A well-designed access point is crucial for easy monitoring and upkeep.
  • Professional Guidance: Consult with crawl space experts or contractors who specialize in conditioned crawl spaces. Their expertise can help you make informed decisions and ensure that the system is designed and constructed correctly.

Designing and implementing a conditioned crawl space system during the construction phase of your new home is a strategic investment. It not only enhances the long-term durability and efficiency of your home but also provides a healthier living environment. These considerations can guide you in making informed decisions and creating a crawl space that meets your specific needs and preferences.

Key Takeaway: 


Transitioning to a conditioned crawlspace involves steps like assessment, encapsulation, moisture control, and pest prevention. New constructions should consider location, moisture barrier, ventilation, insulation, and professional guidance for a healthier, more efficient living space.

Installation and Maintenance

Professional Installation Process

Installing a conditioned crawl space system is a task best left to professionals with experience in crawl space encapsulation and conditioning. Their expertise ensures the effective implementation of the system. Here are the key steps involved in the professional installation process:

  1. Initial Inspection: The process begins with a thorough inspection of your crawl space. Professionals will assess existing conditions, identifying moisture issues, structural concerns, and potential pest problems.
  2. Customized Design: Based on the inspection findings, professionals will create a customized design plan for your crawl space. This plan outlines the specific steps needed to address existing issues and meet your home’s unique requirements.
  3. Preparation: Before installation, the crawl space needs to be prepped. This includes removing debris, cleaning the area, and ensuring that it’s ready for the encapsulation process.
  4. Crawl Space Encapsulation: The core step of the installation process is encapsulating the crawl space. This involves sealing the space from the outside environment using a vapor barrier, which prevents moisture intrusion and helps maintain controlled conditions.
  5. Moisture Control Systems: Professionals will install moisture control systems like dehumidifiers and drainage solutions to regulate humidity and manage any water that might enter the crawl space.
  6. Insulation and Ventilation: Proper insulation and ventilation are essential components of a conditioned crawl space. Insulation materials are carefully installed to ensure energy efficiency, while ventilation systems are designed for optimal air circulation.
  7. Pest Deterrence: Pest prevention measures are taken, including sealing entry points, installing pest-resistant barriers, and using safe and effective pest control solutions to keep critters out.
  8. Quality Assurance: The professionals conduct a final quality check to ensure that all components of the conditioned crawl space system are correctly installed and functioning as intended.
  9. Clean-Up: After installation, the work area is cleaned and restored to its original condition, leaving your crawl space in excellent shape.
  10. Professional Guidance: Before completing the process, professionals provide guidance on routine maintenance and how to monitor your conditioned crawl space for long-term effectiveness.

Professional installation is crucial for achieving the best results with your conditioned crawl space system. These experts have the knowledge and tools to ensure that your crawl space is properly sealed, insulated, and equipped to control moisture, prevent pests, and enhance your home’s energy efficiency. Their experience and attention to detail make a significant difference in the long-term success of your crawl space.

Routine Maintenance and Inspections

Maintaining your conditioned crawl space system is essential to ensure its long-term effectiveness. Regular inspections and maintenance activities help prevent issues and keep your crawl space in top condition. Here are the key steps for routine maintenance and inspections:

  • Scheduled Inspections: Set up a regular schedule for inspections. Professionals recommend semi-annual or annual checks to monitor the condition of your crawl space.
  • Moisture Level Monitoring: Keep an eye on the moisture levels within the crawl space. Elevated humidity can indicate a problem. Regularly check and adjust the dehumidifier settings if needed.
  • Check for Leaks: Inspect for any signs of water leaks or seepage in the crawl space. Address any leaks promptly to prevent moisture buildup.
  • Pest Control: Continuously monitor for signs of pest activity. Ensure that pest prevention measures remain effective, such as sealing entry points and using repellents or traps when necessary.
  • Inspect Insulation: Examine the condition of insulation materials to ensure they are intact and functioning correctly. Replace or repair any damaged insulation as needed.
  • Ventilation System: Verify that the ventilation system is working as intended. Ensure proper air circulation to maintain air quality and prevent stagnation.
  • Vapor Barrier Integrity: Check the vapor barrier for any tears, punctures, or damage. Address any issues to maintain an effective moisture barrier.
  • Dehumidifier Maintenance: If your crawl space system includes a dehumidifier, perform regular maintenance, such as changing filters and cleaning coils, following the manufacturer’s guidelines.
  • Clean Crawl Space Access Points: Ensure that access points to the crawl space are kept clean and free from debris for easy inspections and maintenance.
  • Professional Inspections: Consider periodic professional inspections, especially if you’re not confident in your own assessment. Professionals can provide in-depth evaluations and identify issues that may not be immediately apparent.

Regular maintenance and inspections are key to keeping your conditioned crawl space system in optimal condition. By being proactive and addressing any issues promptly, you can ensure that the system continues to provide the benefits of improved air quality, energy efficiency, and protection against moisture and pests in your home.

Cost Considerations

When implementing and maintaining a conditioned crawlspace system, cost considerations are essential. 

Costs can vary depending on factors such as the size of the crawl space, the complexity of installation, and the choice of HVAC equipment. 

However, it’s important to consider the system’s long-term benefits, which often include reduced energy bills, fewer repair expenses, and improved indoor air quality. 

In the long run, the investment in a conditioned crawl space can lead to cost savings and a healthier living environment.

FAQs in Relation to Conditioned Crawlspace

What is the purpose of a conditioned crawlspace, often referred to as an encapsulated crawl space, and how does it differ from traditional crawl spaces?

A conditioned crawlspace, often referred to as an encapsulated crawl space, is a space beneath a building that has been transformed into a controlled and conditioned environment. 

This involves sealing it from the outside, insulating the walls and rim joists, and integrating heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. 

The goal is to maintain consistent temperatures, manage humidity, and enhance indoor air quality while eliminating crawl space vents.

Why is crawl space insulation important, and what are the benefits it provides in terms of energy efficiency and comfort?

Crawl space insulation plays a crucial role in maintaining temperature consistency and improving energy efficiency. 

Insulating the walls, floor joists, and rim joists helps to minimize heat loss, reducing energy consumption and utility costs. 

This insulation also contributes to a more comfortable living environment.

How does the process of crawl space encapsulation, which involves sealing the space with materials like a crawl space liner or crawl space vapor barrier made of polyethylene sheeting, contribute to moisture control and indoor air quality?

Crawl space encapsulation involves sealing the space from the external environment using materials like a crawl space liner or crawl space vapor barrier, typically made of polyethylene sheeting. 

This process creates a continuous sealed environment that eliminates moisture intrusion, prevents mold and mildew growth, and improves indoor air quality.

Can I use spray foam insulation in my conditioned crawl space, and where is it commonly applied, such as walls and rim joists, to improve energy efficiency and insulation?

Yes, using spray foam insulation in a conditioned crawl space is a common practice. Spray foam provides an effective thermal barrier and air seal, helping to maintain consistent temperatures and reduce energy consumption. It’s often used to insulate the walls and rim joists in these spaces.

What is the purpose of perimeter drainage in a conditioned crawl space, and how does it prevent moisture issues, ensuring a dry and controlled environment?

Perimeter drainage in a conditioned crawl space helps manage water effectively. 

It’s designed to collect and redirect any water that may infiltrate the crawl space, preventing it from causing moisture-related problems. 

Proper perimeter drainage is a key component of maintaining a dry crawl space environment.

What role does building science play in creating a controlled, conditioned crawlspace environment, ensuring proper space insulation, and managing crawl space moisture and air quality?

Building science plays a crucial role in designing and implementing a controlled, conditioned crawlspace. 

It involves using best practices, such as sealing crawl space vents, insulating the space, and integrating HVAC systems to maintain consistent conditions and manage moisture. 

This approach is in line with building code regulations and contributes to a controlled and conditioned crawl space, ultimately improving air quality and energy efficiency while eliminating damp crawl space issues.

How does the concept of positive pressure in a conditioned crawlspace contribute to improving crawl space air quality and removing moisture?

Positive pressure in a conditioned crawlspace involves directing supply air into the space to create slight air pressure imbalances. 

This helps to remove moisture by keeping humid outdoor air out and promoting dry air circulation, effectively enhancing crawl space air quality. 

This approach is considered a good idea for controlling humidity and preventing moisture-related issues, such as crawl space water intrusion, and is often achieved through the use of an air conditioner, rigid foam insulation, and sealed crawl space design, eliminating the need for vented crawlspaces.

How does a water alarm function in the context of a conditioned crawlspace, and how does it contribute to maintaining a conditioned space by preventing issues like crawl space moisture and open crawl problems?

A: A water alarm is an essential component in a conditioned crawlspace. 

It monitors for signs of moisture intrusion and potential water issues, such as those that can occur in an open crawl space. 

When activated, it sends alerts to homeowners or property managers. 

Promptly identifying and addressing water-related problems plays a crucial role in maintaining a conditioned space and preventing crawl space moisture issues. 

This ensures that the crawl space remains dry and that the housing envelope is effectively sealed, safeguarding against crawlspace air quality problems and other concerns related to an open crawl.

What is the role of return air in a conditioned crawlspace, and how does it relate to maintaining a conditioned crawl space and ensuring that efficient air flows through the space while eliminating the need for crawlspace vents?

Return air in a conditioned crawlspace plays a crucial role in maintaining a condition crawl space. 

It assists in the efficient circulation of fresh air and ensures that the air flowing throughout the space is consistent and controlled. 

By effectively managing air exchange, return air eliminates the need for traditional crawlspace vents, contributing to improved energy efficiency and a more comfortable environment.

What is the purpose of crawl space tape in a conditioned crawlspace, and how does it contribute to maintaining a close crawl that is efficient and sealed?

Crawl space tape is a crucial component in a conditioned crawlspace. 

It is used to seal joints and seams in the crawlspace framing and insulation, ensuring that the space remains airtight and well-insulated. 

By effectively sealing these areas, crawl space tape plays a significant role in maintaining a close crawl that is efficient, preventing unwanted drafts, and maintaining the desired temperature, especially when integrated with a heat pump.

Conditioned Crawlspace Revolutionizes Maintenance for Healthier Homes

In conclusion, the conditioned crawlspace system represents a groundbreaking evolution in crawl space maintenance. 

By sealing off moisture, optimizing insulation, and controlling the environment, it ensures healthier living spaces and energy efficiency. 

However, achieving the full potential of a conditioned crawlspace often requires professional expertise. 

Whether you’re considering an installation or need maintenance, don’t hesitate to seek assistance from qualified experts in conditioned crawlspace systems. 

Their knowledge and experience will help you unlock the full benefits of this transformative approach, ensuring a more comfortable and efficient home environment.

From our humble beginnings to now serving the entire Nashville Metro Area, we’re committed to ensuring every home reaches the “Next Level”. 

Don’t compromise on quality; experience the difference with Crawlspace Makeovers.

Ready to revolutionize your crawlspace? Dial 615-909-2879, and let’s elevate your home together!

Greg Lewis

Greg Lewis

Greg Lewis is the founder and CEO of Tier Restoration, a company dedicated to restoring the indoor environment of homes and businesses experiencing water damage, smoke damage, or mold contamination.

Greg has spent most of his life working in this industry in Nashville, Tennessee, in the 1970s, working in his father’s commercial cleaning business, in the 1980s and 1990s as a partner with his father in the Sears Carpet and Duct Cleaning franchise, then on his own since 2000.

Greg played his trumpet at Overton High School and the University of Tennessee, Chattanooga, and you can still find him playing throughout the Greater Nashville, Tennessee area.